The name Australia (pronounced /əˈstreɪliə/ in
Australian English) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. Several sixteenth century cartographers used the word Australia on maps, but not to identify modern Australia. When Europeans began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories.[N 5]
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as New Holland, a name first applied by the Dutch explorer
Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.[N 6] The name Australia was popularised by the explorer
Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the Earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor
Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from
Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the
Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. In 1824, the
Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name. The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the
Colloquial names for Australia include "
Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "
Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "
the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from
Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "
Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continuous cultures on Earth. At the time of first European contact, Aboriginal Australians were complex
hunter-gatherers with diverse economies and societies and about 250 different language groups. Recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained. Aboriginal Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the
The Torres Strait Islander people first settled their islands around 4000 years ago. Culturally and linguistically distinct from mainland Aboriginal peoples, they were seafarers and obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas.
The northern coasts and waters of Australia were
visited sporadically for trade by
Makassan fishermen from what is now Indonesia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken, captained by Dutch navigator
Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of
Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February 1606 at the
Pennefather River near the modern town of
Weipa on Cape York. Later that year, Spanish explorer
Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through and navigated the
Torres Strait Islands. The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, and although no attempt at settlement was made,a number of shipwrecks left men either stranded or, as in the case of the Batavia in 1629, marooned for mutiny and murder, thus becoming the first Europeans to permanently inhabit the continent. In 1770, Captain
James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named "New South Wales" and claimed for Great Britain.
Following the loss of its
American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the
First Fleet, under the command of Captain
Arthur Phillip, to establish a new
penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the
Union Flag raised at
Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788, a date which later became
Australia's national day. Most early
transported for petty crimes and assigned as labourers or servants to "free settlers" (non-convict immigrants). While the majority of convicts settled into colonial society once
emancipated, convict rebellions and uprisings were also staged, but invariably suppressed under martial law. The 1808
Rum Rebellion, the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia, instigated a two-year period of military rule. The following decade, social and economic reforms initiated by Governor
Lachlan Macquarie saw New South Wales transition from a penal colony to a civil society.
The indigenous population declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease. Thousands more died as a result of
frontier conflict with settlers.
In 1823, a Legislative Council nominated by the governor of New South Wales was established, together with a new Supreme Court, thus limiting the powers of colonial governors. Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained
responsible government, thus becoming elective democracies managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the
British Empire. The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs and defence.
In the mid-19th century, explorers such as
Burke and Wills went further inland to determine its agricultural potential and answer scientific questions. A
series of gold rushes beginning in the early 1850s led to an influx of new migrants from
China, North America and continental Europe, as well as outbreaks of
bushranging and civil unrest; the latter peaked in 1854 when
Ballarat miners launched the
Eureka Rebellion against gold license fees.
From 1886, Australian colonial governments began introducing policies resulting in the removal of many Aboriginal children from their families and communities (referred to as the
Following the final abolition of the
White Australia policy in 1973, Australia's demography and culture transformed as a result of a large and ongoing wave of non-European immigration, mostly from Asia. The late 20th century also saw an increasing focus on foreign policy ties with other
Pacific Rim nations. While the Australia Act 1986 severed the remaining vestigial constitutional ties between Australia and the United Kingdom, a
1999 referendum resulted in 55% of voters rejecting a proposal to abolish the
Monarchy of Australia and become a republic.
COVID-19 pandemic which commenced in Australia in 2020, several of Australia's largest cities were
locked down for extended periods of time, and free movement across state borders was restricted in an attempt to slow the spread of the
Mainland Australia lies between latitudes
44° South, and longitudes
154° East. Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and desert in the centre. The desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the
outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. Australia is the driest inhabited continent; its annual rainfall averaged over continental area is less than 500 mm. The
population density is 3.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, although the large majority of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline. The population density exceeds 19,500 inhabitants per square kilometre in central Melbourne.
Lying on the
Indo-Australian Plate, the mainland of Australia is the lowest and most primordial landmass on Earth with a relatively stable geological history. The landmass includes virtually all known rock types and from all geological time periods spanning over 3.8 billion years of the Earth's history. The
Pilbara Craton is one of only two pristine
Archaean 3.6–2.7 Ga (billion years ago) crusts identified on the Earth.
Having been part of all major
Australian continent began to form after the breakup of
Gondwana in the
Permian, with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent. It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the
Permian and continuing through to the
Cretaceous. When the
last glacial period ended in about 10,000 BC, rising sea levels formed
Bass Strait, separating
Tasmania from the mainland. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the
Aru Islands, and the mainland of Australia. The Australian continent is moving toward
Eurasia at the rate of 6 to 7 centimetres a year.
Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought. Throughout much of the continent,
major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in the early 2010s after the
2000s Australian drought.
Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, the continent includes a diverse range of habitats from
alpine heaths to
tropical rainforests. Fungi typify that diversity—an estimated 250,000 species—of which only 5% have been described—occur in Australia. Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's
biota is unique. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of
birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are
endemic. Australia has at least 755 species of reptile, more than any other country in the world. Besides Antarctica, Australia is the only continent that developed without feline species. Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species. Seafaring immigrants from Asia are believed to have brought the
dingo to Australia sometime after the end of the last ice age—perhaps 4000 years ago—and Aboriginal people helped disperse them across the continent as pets, contributing to the demise of
thylacines on the mainland. Australia is also one of 17 megadiverse countries.
In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory). The
House of Representatives (the lower house) has 151 members elected from single-member
electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a
electoral system uses
preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with
proportional representation in a system known as the
single transferable vote.
Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction, as is enrolment. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament. Due to the relatively unique position of Australia operating as a
Westminster parliamentary democracy with an elected upper house, the system has sometimes been referred to as having a "Washminster mutation", or as a
Australia has six states—New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (Tas), Victoria (Vic) and Western Australia (WA)—and three mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), the Northern Territory (NT), and the Jervis Bay Territory (JBT). The ACT and NT are mostly self-governing, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments.
Under the constitution, the states essentially have
plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under
section 51. For example, state parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas. However, Commonwealth laws prevail over state laws to the extent of the inconsistency.
Each state and major mainland territory has its own
unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the
Legislative Assembly (the
House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania); the upper houses are known as the
Legislative Council. The
head of the government in each state is the
Premier and in each territory the
Chief Minister. The King is represented in each state by a
governor. In the Commonwealth, the King's representative is the governor-general.
Australia is a member of several defence, intelligence and security groupings including the
Five Eyes intelligence alliance with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand; the ANZUS alliance with the United States and New Zealand; the
AUKUS security treaty with the United States and United Kingdom; the
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue with the United States, India and Japan; the
Five Power Defence Arrangements with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore; and the
Reciprocal Access defence and security agreement with Japan.
Australia maintains a deeply integrated relationship with neighbouring New Zealand, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the
Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement and free trade under the Closer Economic Relations agreement. The most favourably viewed countries by the Australian people in 2021 include New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States and South Korea. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to
multilateralism, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. Australia ranked fourth in the
Center for Global Development's 2021
Commitment to Development Index.
In the 2016–2017 budget, defence spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's
12th largest defence budget. Australia has been involved in United Nations and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief, as well as armed conflicts from the
First World War onwards.
Legal and social rights in Australia are regarded as among the most developed in the world. Attitudes towards LGBT people are generally positive within Australia, and
same-sex marriage has been legal in the nation since 2017. Australia has had anti-discrimination laws regarding disability since 1992.
In 2003, Australia's energy sources were coal (58.4%), hydropower (19.1%), natural gas (13.5%), liquid/gas fossil fuel-switching plants (5.4%), oil (2.9%), and other renewable resources like wind power, solar energy, and bioenergy (0.7%). During the 21st century, Australia has been trending to generate more energy using renewable resources and less energy using fossil fuels. In 2020, Australia used coal for 62% of all energy (3.6% increase compared to 2013), wind power for 9.9% (9.5% increase), natural gas for 9.9% (3.6% decrease), solar power for 9.9% (9.8% increase), hydropower for 6.4% (12.7% decrease), bioenergy for 1.4% (1.2% increase), and other sources like oil and waste coal mine gas for 0.5%.
In August 2009, Australia's government set a goal to achieve 20% of all energy in the country from renewable sources by 2020. They achieved this goal, as renewable resources accounted for 27.7% of Australia's energy in 2020.
Science and technology
In 2019, Australia spent A$35.6 billion on
research and development, allocating about 1.79% of GDP. A recent study by
Accenture for the Tech Council shows that the Australian tech sector combined contributes $167 billion a year to the economy and employs 861,000 people. The country's most recognized and important sector of this type is mining, where Australia continues to have the highest penetration of technologies, especially drones, autonomous and remote-controlled vehicles and mine management software. In addition, recent
startup ecosystems in Sydney and Melbourne are already valued at $34 billion combined. Australia ranked 24th in the
Global Innovation Index 2023.
With only 0.3% of the world's population, Australia contributed 4.1% of the world's published research in 2020, making it one of the top 10 research contributors in the world.CSIRO, Australia's national science agency, contributes 10% of all research in the country, while the rest is carried out by universities. Its most notable contributions include the invention of
atomic absorption spectroscopy, the essential components of
Wi-Fi technology, and the development of the first commercially successful
Australia is highly urbanised, with 67% of the population living in the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (metropolitan areas of the state and mainland territorial capital cities) in 2018. Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are
In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2018 the
average age of the Australian population was 38.8 years. In 2015, 2.15% of the Australian population
lived overseas, one of the
lowest proportions worldwide.
Today, Australia has the world's
eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30% of the population, the
highest proportion among major
Western nations. 160,323 permanent immigrants were admitted to Australia in 2018–2019 (excluding
refugees), whilst there was a net population gain of 239,600 people from all permanent and temporary immigration in that year. The majority of immigrants are skilled, but the immigration program includes categories for family members and
refugees. In 2020, the largest foreign-born populations were those born in
Mainland China (2.5%), New Zealand (2.2%), the
Philippines (1.2%) and
Although English is not the official language of Australia in law, it is the de facto official and national language.Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling.General Australian serves as the standard dialect.
At the 2021 census, English was the only language spoken in the home for 72% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home were
Cantonese (1.2%) and
Australian Aboriginal languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact. The National Indigenous Languages Survey (NILS) for 2018–19 found that more than 120 Indigenous language varieties were in use or being revived, although 70 of those in use were endangered. The 2021 census found that 167 Indigenous languages were spoken at home by 76,978 Indigenous Australians. NILS and the Australian Bureau of Statistics use different classifications for Indigenous Australian languages.
The Australian sign language known as
Auslan was used at home by 16,242 people at the time of the 2021 census.
In 2021, just under 8,000 people declared an affiliation with traditional Aboriginal religions. In
Australian Aboriginal mythology and the
animist framework developed in Aboriginal Australia, the
Dreaming is a
sacred era in which ancestral
totemic spirit beings formed
The Creation. The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land.
Australia's life expectancy of 83 years (81 years for males and 85 years for females), is the
fifth-highest in the world. It has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world, while
cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is
hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%. Australia ranked 35th in the world in 2012 for its proportion of obese women and near the top of
developed nations for its proportion of
obese adults; 63% of its adult population is either overweight or obese.
School attendance, or registration for
home schooling, is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16. In some states (Western Australia, Northern Territory and New South Wales), children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an
Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003. However, a 2011–2012 report for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that Tasmania has a literacy and numeracy rate of only 50%.
Australia has 37 government-funded universities and three private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university. There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as
TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. 30.9% of Australia's population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.
Australia has the highest ratio of
international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with 812,000 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2019. Accordingly, in 2019, international students represented on average 26.7% of the student bodies of Australian universities. International education therefore represents one of the country's largest exports and has a pronounced influence on the country's demographics, with a significant proportion of international students remaining in Australia after graduation on various skill and employment visas. Education is Australia's third-largest export, after iron ore and coal, and contributed over $28 billion to the economy in 2016–17.
^Sydney is the largest city based on Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs). These represent labour markets and the functional area of Australian capital cities. Melbourne is larger based on ABS Significant Urban Areas (SUAs). These represent Urban Centres, or groups of contiguous Urban Centres, that contain a population of 10,000 persons or more.
^The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir
Richard Hakluyt", published by
Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espíritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit) for an island in
Vanuatu. The Dutch adjectival form australische was used in a Dutch book in
Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.
^Includes those who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry have at least partial
^The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry have at least partial
^Those who nominated their ancestry as "Australian Aboriginal". Does not include
Torres Strait Islanders. This relates to nomination of ancestry and is distinct from persons who identify as Indigenous (Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) which is a separate question.
^Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
ab"Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2022. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
^"Constitution of Australia".
ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
^Grant, Cameron (August 2007).
"Damaged Dirt"(PDF). The Advertiser. Archived from
the original(PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2010. Australia has the oldest, most highly weathered soils on the planet.
abClarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G.; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S. Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E. A.; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin (2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310.
^Malaspinas, A. S., Westaway, M. C., Muller, C., Sousa, V. C., Lao, O., Alves, I., Bergström, A., Athanasiadis, G., Cheng, J. Y., Crawford, J. E., Heupink, T. H., Macholdt, E., Peischl, S., Rasmussen, S., Schiffels, S., Subramanian, S., Wright, J. L., Albrechtsen, A., Barbieri, C., Dupanloup, I., et al., Willerslev, E. (2016). A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia. Nature, 538(7624), 207–214.
^"European discovery and the colonisation of Australia". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 11 January 2008. Archived from
the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2010. [The British] moved north to Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, landing at Camp Cove, known as 'cadi' to the Cadigal people. Governor Phillip carried instructions to establish the first British Colony in Australia. The First Fleet was underprepared for the task, and the soil around Sydney Cove was poor.
^Reed, Liz (2004). Bigger than Gallipoli: war, history, and memory in Australia. Crawley, Western Australia: University of Western Australia. p. 5.
Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 32, 38.
^Beaumont, Joan (1996). "Australia's war: Europe and the Middle East". In Beaumont, Joan (ed.). Australia's War, 1939–1945. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
^Beaumont, Joan (1996a). "Australia's war: Asia and the Pacific". In Beaumont, Joan (ed.). Australia's War, 1939–1945. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
^"Australia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 August 2009. "Smallest continent and sixth largest country (in area) on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans".
^"Islands". Geoscience Australia. Archived from
the original on 23 April 2010. "Being surrounded by ocean, Australia often is referred to as an island continent. As a continental landmass it is significantly larger than the many thousands of fringing islands..."
^"Australia in Brief: The island continent". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia). Archived from
the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009. "Mainland Australia, with an area of 7.69 million square kilometres, is the Earth's largest island but smallest continent".
^Pirajno, F., Occhipinti, S.A. and Swager, C.P., 1998. Geology and tectonic evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah, Padbury and Yerrida basins, Western Australia: implications for the history of the south-central Capricorn orogen Precambrian Research, 90: 119–40
^Pain, C.F., Villans, B.J., Roach, I.C., Worrall, L. & Wilford, J.R. (2012) "Old, flat and red – Australia's distinctive landscape" In: Shaping a Nation: A Geology of Australia Blewitt, R.S. (Ed.) Geoscience Australia and ANU E Press, Canberra. pp. 227–75
^Capling, Ann (2013). Australia and the Global Trade System: From Havana to Seattle. Cambridge University Press. p. 116.
^Gallagher, P. W. (1988). "Setting the agenda for trade negotiations: Australia and the Cairns group". Australian Journal of International Affairs. 42 (1 April 1988): 3–8.
^"NZ, Australia 'should consider merger'". Sydney Morning Herald. 4 December 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2008. The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs [found] "While Australia and New Zealand are of course two sovereign nations, it seems to the committee that the strong ties between the two countries – the economic, cultural, migration, defence, governmental and people-to-people linkages – suggest that an even closer relationship, including the possibility of union, is both desirable and realistic ..."
abBiggs, Amanda (29 October 2004).
"Medicare – Background Brief". Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from
the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
^"Sidney Nolan's Rainbow Serpent is larger than life" (16 June 2012), The Australasian.
^Tacon, Paul S. C.; Ouzman, Sven (2004). "Worlds within stone: the inner and outer rock-art landscapes of northern Australia and southern Africa". In Nash, George; Chippindale, Christopher (ed.). The Figured Landscapes of Rock-Art: Looking at Pictures in Place. Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–68. 9780521524247.
^Skinner, James; Zakus H., Dwight; Edwards, Allan (2013). "Coming in from the Margins: Ethnicity, Community Support and the Rebranding of Australian Soccer". In Adam, Brown (ed.). Football and Community in the Global Context: Studies in Theory and Practice. Routledge. pp. 92–93.
Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell.
Goad, Philip and Julie Willis (eds.) (2011). The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press.
Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf.
Powell, J.M. (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, G.M., Loughran, R.J., and Tranter, P.J. (2000). Australia and New Zealand: Economy, Society and Environment. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press.
Brett, Judith (2019). From Secret Ballot to Democracy Sausage: How Australia Got Compulsory Voting. Text Publishing Co.
Listen to this article (2 parts, 36 minutes)
These audio files were created from a revision of this article dated 17 January 2006 (2006-01-17), and do not reflect subsequent edits.